Bromine Equilibrium: Bromine Vapor Pressure Computer Animation



A computer animation representing at the particulate level the dynamic equilibrium established between molecules in the liquid phase and molecules in the vapor (gas) phase of bromine: 
$\ce{Br2(l) <=> Br2(g)}$

This computer animation shows the vapor pressure of bromine above liquid bromine at the molecular level of representation.

This animation is a beta version.  Please send comments as to what needs to be changed to improve the animation.

Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403  USA

A set of PowerPoint slides is available to accompany this computer animation.


Physical Properties of Bromine (Br2)
m.p.    -7.2°C  (19°F)
b.p.  58.8°C  (137.8°C)
vapor pressure at 25°C   0.30 atm (228 mm Hg)
Hvaporization  29.96 kJ/mole


Comparison of Vapor Pressures of Other Substances at 25°C

Vapor Pressure at 25°C

Primary Type of Intermolecular Force Acting Between Molecules
propane (CH3CH2CH3)8.43 atmLondon Dispersion
bromine (Br2)0.30 atmLondon Dispersion
ethanol (CH3CH2OH)0.08 atmhydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole
water  (H2O)0.03 atmhydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole


Curriculum Notes 
Purdue University has a nice computer animation representing molecules in the liquid phase and gas phase of bromine. However, the computer animation does not depict the dynamic equilibrium between the two phases.  A liquid is a state of matter in which a sample of matter:

  • flows and can change its shape.
  • is not easily compressible and maintains a relatively fixed volume
  •  The particle view or microscopic view of liquid bromine as depicted in the computer animation illustrates
    • Liquids are made up of very small particles (atoms, molecules, and/or ions).
    • The particles that make up a liquid: